Department Of Obstetrics And Gynecology

Uttaranchal hospital offers a whole range of inpatient and outpatient services which go beyond the needs of women from their formative years, right through pregnancy to menopause.

 

NUMBER OF BEDS-15

  • LABOUR ROOM

  • MAJOR OPERATION THEATRE

  • IVF CLINIC

  • ULTRASOUND ROOM WITH COLOUR DOPPLER, 3D/4D ULTRASOUND

Facilities

The Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics is equipped with:

  • Separate Procedure rooms

  • Specialized operation theatres

  • Advanced diagnostic capabilities

Treatments

The Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics is well equipped to deliver a range of treatments, including:

  • Adolescent health care

  • Reproductive endocrine care

  • Menstrual disorders management

  • Benign breast disorders management

  • Menopause disorders management

  • Advanced pelvic endoscopy surgery

  • Gynecologic oncology

  • Contraception & Family Planning

  • Obstetrics care

  • Management of High-risk pregnancies

  • Management of medical disorders during pregnancy

  • Painless Normal Delivery

When a woman is pregnant, many complications can arise which may require various medical procedures. These include:

  • Extra Uterine Pregnancy (ECTOPIC pregnancy), a condition where the embryo is in a fallopian tube

  • High-risk pregnancies including Pre-eclampsia, GDM, Gestation Hypertension

  • Foetal distress caused due to compression

  • Screening during pregnancy for medical conditions, high blood pressure and infections

  • Early pregnancy and its complications

  • Screening of foetus during pregnancy for chromosomal abnormalities and infections

  • Postpartum haemorrhage and its management

  • Postpartum complication including medical and psychological problems

Our unique maternity programme for pregnant women includes prenatal (pre-delivery) & postnatal (post-delivery) classes, infant care, and breastfeeding classes. Our state-of-the-art technology includes a Wireless CTG that gives an accurate differentiation between maternal and foetal heart rate and allows free movement for women during induction and labour.

Gynaecology comprises of the preventive care and curative aspects including:

  • Preventive care such as pap smear, mammography and screening

  • Problems related to adolescence such as pre-ovarian puberty, amenorrhea and more

  • Infertility

  • Contraception

  • Menstrual irregularities

  • Peri-menopausal issues

  • Post-menopausal conditions such prolapse, incontinence, post-menopausal bleeding

  • Screening, detection and treatment of gynaecological malignancies

Usually, women see their gynaecologist for their annual Pap test and pelvic exam. Some other reasons they see a gynaecologist are for any pain, discomfort or infection in the uterus, breasts or genitals. Furthermore, gynaecologists also provide assistance with infertility issues as well as contraception. Gynaecology is all about diagnosing and treating diseases of the reproductive system such as cancer of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix, uterus, and vagina. A gynaecologist also helps in treating prolapse of the pelvic organs. This ailment is usually present in postmenopausal females with weakened pelvic muscles that are unable to support the uterus or bladder normally.

WHAT ARE POLYCYSTIC OVARIES?

Also known as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Polycystic Ovaries occur due to a hormonal disorder in women. This condition causes the production of high levels of male hormones called androgen in women, causing various health problems related to menstruation and pregnancy.

SYMPTOMS OF POLYCYSTIC OVARIES

Usually, the signs and symptoms of polycystic ovaries differ from patient to patient. Some of the common symptoms a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome experiences are:

  • Irregular Menstruation: Women with PCOS lack ovulation which prevents the monthly shedding of the uterine lining. This results in irregular menstrual cycle.

  • Heavy bleeding: As the regular period is absent, the uterine lining builds up for a long time. When it finally begins to shed, a woman gets a heavy period as compared to the normal bleeding.

  • Acne: Due to excess production of androgen, the skin becomes oilier than usual. This causes acne on various body parts including face, upper back and chest.

  • Weight Gain: More than 70 % of the women with polycystic ovaries suffer from obesity.

  • Darkening of Skin: In some cases, dark patches may develop on the skin in areas like neck, groin and under the breasts.

  • Headache: The hormonal disbalance can trigger headaches as well.

  • Hair Growth: Polycystic ovaries also lead to excessive hair growth on face and body. This condition is also known as hirsutism.

  • Baldness: Some women with polycystic ovaries can also expect male pattern baldness.

  • Emotional disturbances due to hormonal changes

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF POLYCYSTIC OVARIES?

Though the main causes of polycystic ovaries are not known, there are certain factors that are usually associated with the excess production of androgen. Some of the factors that may play a role in PCOS are as follows:

  • Excess Insulin: Insulin is a hormone that helps the cells in using sugar from the food and converts it into energy or stores it in the form of glucose for future use. Insulin resistance happens when the cells in the body stop responding normally to it, resulting in high levels of insulin and sugar in the body. This condition of excess insulin may increase the production of androgen, causing disturbances in ovulation.

  • Genes: Genes are related in causing polycystic ovaries. Family without diabetes mellitus is a strong contributing factor

  • Inflammation: Patients with polycystic ovaries usually have high levels of inflammation in the body, and this is also linked to the excess production of androgen hormone in the body.

WHAT ARE THE HEALTH COMPLICATIONS DUE TO POLYCYSTIC OVARIES?

Polycystic ovaries are not just responsible for causing the symptoms mentioned above but can also lead to several health issues. Few of them are mentioned below:

  • Infertility: Due to polycystic ovaries, women cannot ovulate regularly, and this irregular ovulation prevents the production of eggs for fertilization. This leads to trouble in pregnancy and in many cases infertility as well.

  • Sleep Apnea: In this condition, obesity may cause repeated pauses in breathing occur during the night which interrupts the sleep.

  • Metabolic Syndrome: Most of the women suffering from polycystic ovaries are obese or overweight. This increases the risk of high blood pressure, blood sugar, LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol. All these factors are together called metabolic syndrome that can increase the risk of stroke, diabetes and heart disease.

  • Endometrial Cancer: The thickened lining in the uterus due to irregular ovulation can increase the risk of endometrial cancer.

  • Depression: Due to various hormonal changes and unwanted hair growth, many women with polycystic ovaries tend to experience depression.

DIAGNOSIS OF POLYCYSTIC OVARIES

Once the symptoms and complications related to polycystic ovaries are detected in a woman, doctors recommend various diagnostic tests to ensure the presence of the hormonal disorder. The doctor first asks the patient about the symptoms and then moves forward for the pelvic exam. During the pelvic exam, the doctor checks for the issues related to the ovaries or any other part of the reproductive system.

The diagnostic process also involves blood tests and an ultrasound. Blood tests are performed to check the presence of high levels of male hormones. Moreover, an ultrasound test is performed to identify abnormal follicles and other complications in the uterus and ovaries.

POLYCYSTIC OVARIES TREATMENT

Though there is no cure for polycystic ovaries, doctors prescribe treatments that can control the symptoms. Primary polycystic ovaries treatment involves healthy alterations in the lifestyle and medications. Mostly the treatment is tailored as per the condition of the patient. The main aim of a polycystic ovary treatment includes weight control, lowering the blood glucose level, preventing fertility issues, hindering the growth of acne, and restoration of regular periods. During the treatment, the patient is required to attend regular appointments to check the progress.

PLACENTA PRAEVIA: OVERVIEW

Placenta Praevia is a condition in which the placenta grows in the lowest part of the womb (uterus) and obstructs its opening to the cervix. This problem occurs during pregnancy and is very common. Generally,it lies in the lowest part of the womb but as the pregnancy
 continues, the placenta moves to the top of the womb. If it doesn’t change its position, the condition is known as placenta praevia. The biggest threat in placenta praevia is sudden bleeding that can be life threatening to the mother and baby. There are 3 types of placenta praevia; Marginal, Partial and Complete.

There are three types of placenta praevia:

  • Marginal – The placenta is next to cervix but doesn’t cover the opening.

  • Partial – The placenta covers part of the cervical opening.

  • Complete – The placenta covers all of the opening to cervix.

PLACENTA PRAEVIA: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

The foremost symptom of placenta praevia is sudden bleeding from the vagina during pregnancy. However, some women may experience cramps too. Bleeding often starts near the end of the second trimester or beginning of the third trimester. Your health care provider may diagnose this condition using a pregnancy ultrasound.

PLACENTA PRAEVIA: CAUSES

According to a study, placenta praevia occurs in 1 out of 200 pregnancies. This condition is common in women with:

  • Abnormally shaped uterus

  • Many previous pregnancies

  • Multiple pregnancies

  • Scarring on the lining of the uterus, due to history of surgery, C-section, previous pregnancy, or abortion

PLACENTA PRAEVIA: TREATMENT

The treatment of placenta praevia actually depends on the type of placenta praevia and the pregnancy stage. It is also true that almost all women with placenta praevia partial or complete need a C-section.

  • If the placenta is covering a part of the cervix, your doctor may suggest limiting your activities, bed rest, and pelvic rest

  • Blood transfusions

  • Medicines to prevent early labor

  • Medicines till pregnancy continuation to at least 36 weeks

  • Steroid shots to help the baby’s lungs mature

PREECLAMPSIA: OVERVIEW

Preeclampsia is a medical condition during pregnancy in which a pregnant woman develops high blood pressure and protein in the urine. This condition generally occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy. This high blood pressure during pregnancy can damage the maternal endothelium, kidneys, and liver. In severe disease there may be red blood cell breakdown, a low blood platelet count, impaired liver function, kidney dysfunction, swelling, shortness of breath due to fluid in the lungs, or visual disturbances. Preeclampsia increases the risk of poor outcomes for both the mother and the baby. If left untreated, it may result in seizures at which point it is known as eclampsia.

PREECLAMPSIA: SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

The women with preeclampsia may experience following symptoms:

  • Swelling of hands and face/eyes

  • Sudden weight gain over 2-3 days

  • Headache that does not go away

  • Pain below the ribs, on right side

  • Decreased urine output

  • Irritability

  • Blurred vision, seeing flashing lights or spots

PREECLAMPSIA: CAUSES

The exact cause of preeclampsia is still unknown. Possible cases are:

  • Autoimmune disorders

  • Blood vessel problems

  • Your diet

  • Your genes

  • First pregnancy

  • Obesity

  • Multiple pregnancy

  • Pregnancy after the age of 35

  • History of diabetes, high blood pressure, or kidney disease

PREECLAMPSIA: TREATMENT

In medical books, the only way to treat preeclampsia is to deliver the baby. If your baby is developed enough (generally 37 weeks or later), your doctor may recommend delivering your baby so the preeclampsia does not get worse.

If your baby is not fully developed and it is dangerous to deliver, your doctor will suggest few things to ensure a healthy chance of surviving after delivery.

  • Bed rest, lying on your left side most or all of the time

  • Drinking plenty of water

  • Eating less salt

  • Frequent visits to doctor

  • Medicines to lower your blood pressure and keep the growth of baby

The baby must be delivered, if there are signs of severe preeclampsia, including:

  • Severe preeclampsia can do heavy damage to mother

  • Pain in the belly area

  • Seizures or changes in mental function

  • Fluid in the mother’s lungs (pulmonary edema)

  • Low platelet count or bleeding

  • Low urine output

  • Abnormal liver function test results

  • Signs that your baby is not growing well or not getting enough blood and oxygen

 

OVARIAN HYPOFUNCTION: OVERVIEW

Ovarian hypofunction is the reduced function of ovaries cauasing a decrease in production of hormones. Women with ovarian hypofunction may experience symptoms of menopause and makes it difficult for a woman to get pregnant.

OVARIAN HYPOFUNCTION: SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • Hot flashes

  • Irregular or absent periods

  • Mood swings

  • Night sweats

  • Vaginal dryness

OVARIAN HYPOFUNCTION: CAUSES

  • Genetic factors such as chromosome abnormalities

  • Certain autoimmune disorders

  • Chemotherapy

  • Radiation therapy

OVARIAN HYPOFUNCTION: TREATMENT

Doctors use estrogen therapy which provides relief in menstrual symptoms and prevents bone loss. But this therapy does not increase your chance of becoming pregnant. A study shows that 1 in 10 women with ovarian hypofunction will be able to get pregnant. The chance of successfully getting pregnant increases to 50% when using a fertilized donor egg (an egg from another woman).